The case describes and discusses the organizational and strategic challenges of outsourcing research and development (R&D) activities from Denmark to China. Nokia Denmark was founded in 1996 as a subsidiary of the Nokia Corporation and contained the largest Nokia R&D unit, concentrating on the development of mobile telephones, outside Finland. In 2007, Nokia Denmark received instructions from corporate headquarters to drastically increase the number of mobile phones developed. Motivated by the need to release pressure on its in-house capacity, Nokia Denmark decided to outsource certain product development projects to the Taiwanese company Foxconn in a joint R&D (JRD) setup. Foxconn, one of the world’s largest electronic component manufacturers, which was also developing products for many of Nokia’s competitors, was given the responsibility of developing and testing selected standardized and less complex mobile phones, while more complex and sophisticated technology projects were retained in-house. However, by 2010, Foxconn had become a central figure in Nokia Denmark’s product development process with responsibility for increasingly complex projects. Given the increasing importance of Foxconn for Nokia Denmark, the rising pressure from the corporate headquarters and the competitive market environment on products and costs, Nokia Denmark thus faced a central question on how to proceed with the JRD. Three alternatives were outlined for the future of Nokia Denmark’s JRD with Foxconn: the management could decide on scaling up, phasing out or continuing the status quo.